Figure Caption: Euclidean-Distance-Based Local Indicator of Colocation Quotient between Crimes and Entertainment Establishments: (A) Robbery; (B) Residential Burglary; and (C) Motorcycle Theft.


Most existing point-based colocation methods are global measures (e.g., join count statistic, cross K function, and global colocation quotient). Most recently, a local indicator such as the local colocation quotient has been proposed to capture the variability of colocation across areas. Our research advances this line of work by developing a simulation-based statistical test for the local indicator of colocation quotient (LCLQ). The study applies the indicator to examine the association of land use facilities with crime patterns. Moreover, we use the street network distance in addition to the traditional Euclidean distance in defining neighbors because human activities (including facilities and crimes) usually occur along a street network. The method is applied to analyze the colocation of three types of crimes and three categories of facilities in a city in Jiangsu Province, China. The findings demonstrate the value of the proposed method in colocation analysis of crime and facilities and, in general, colocation analysis of point data.


Local Indicator of Colocation Quotient with a Statistical Significance Test: Examining Spatial Association of Crime and Facilities